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June 18, 2018  |  Login
Vitamin A (Retinol, Retinal)
By James F. Balch, M.D. and Mark Stengler, N.D.
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Function: Vision; growth and development; strengthens immune system-especially respiratory tract and mucous membranes; antioxidant

Sources: Liver, chili peppers, carrots, vitamin A-fortified milk, butter, sweet potatoes, parsley, kale, spinach, mangoes, broccoli, squash

RDA: Infants under 1 year: 1,875 IU (375 RE)

1-3 years: 2,000 IU (400 RE)

4-6 years: 2,500 IU (500 RE)

7-10 years: 3,500 IU (700 RE)

11 years to adult:

Men 5,000 IU (1,000 RE)

Women 4,000 IU (800 RE)

Note: One RE (retinol equivalent) = 3.33 IU (International Units)

Optimal Intake: Adult men: 5,000 IU (1,000 RE)

Adult women: 2,500 IU (500 RE)

Deficiency Signs: Night blindness, infectious disease susceptibility, follicular hyperkeratosis (bumps on the skin-mainly, the back of the upper arm, the shoulders, the neck, the buttocks, and the lower abdomen), faulty tooth and bone formation, impaired growth

Toxicity: Overdoses of vitamin A can produce symptoms of vomiting, joint pain, abdominal pain, bone abnormalities, cracking, dry skin, headache, irritability, and fatigue. Symptoms disappear after supplementation has been discontinued. Pregnant women or those with liver disease should avoid vitamin A supplementation dosages above 2,500 IU (500 RE).

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